Electronics basics

Electronics basics

July 9, A little known feature of Arduinos and many other AVR chips is the ability to measure the internal 1. This feature can be exploited to improve the accuracy of the Arduino function — analogRead when using the default analog reference. It can also be used to measure the Vcc supplied to the AVR chip, which provides a means of monitoring battery voltage without using a precious analog pin to do so. In this article, I have incorporated some additional improvements. Motivation There are at least two reasons to measure the voltage supplied to our Arduino Vcc. One is if our project is battery powered, we may want to monitor that voltage to measure battery levels. Also, when battery powered, Vcc is not going to be 5. A common assumption when using analogRead is that the analog reference voltage is 5.

Test probe

Relocated MAT sensor shown on Rusty’s air tube. Installed in the top of the intake manifold. Testing is the same as the CTS.

Back to Capacitor Testing Table of Contents. Safe Discharging of Capacitors in TVs, Video Monitors, and Microwave Ovens Why This Matters It is essential – for your safety and to prevent damage to the device under test as well as your test equipment – that large or high voltage capacitors be fully discharged before measurements are made, soldering is attempted, or the circuitry is touched in.

Voltage probes[ edit ] Voltage probes are used to measure voltages present on the DUT. To achieve high accuracy, the test instrument and its probe must not significantly affect the voltage being measured. This is accomplished by ensuring that the combination of instrument and probe exhibit a sufficiently high impedance that will not load the DUT.

For AC measurements, the reactive component of impedance may be more important than the resistive. Simple test leads[ edit ] A pair of simple test leads A typical voltmeter probe consists of a single wire test lead that has on one end a connector that fits the voltmeter and on the other end a rigid, tubular plastic section that comprises both a handle and probe body.

The handle allows a person to hold and guide the probe without influencing the measurement by becoming part of the electric circuit or being exposed to dangerous voltages that might cause electric shock. Within the probe body, the wire is connected to a rigid, pointed metal tip that contacts the DUT. Some probes allow an alligator clip to be attached to the tip, thus enabling the probe to be attached to the DUT so that it need not be held in place. Test leads are usually made with finely stranded wire to keep them flexible, of wire gauges sufficient to conduct a few amperes of electric current.

The insulation is chosen to be both flexible and have a breakdown voltage higher than the voltmeter’s maximum input voltage.

Kubota M8540 Workshop Manual

Some of these are original, most are “gleaned” from others a cut-paste reminders You will need to provide detail info. Run the engine at about RPM, and the voltage at the battery should be It goes down at higher temperature, so if it’s in the 80’s or 90’s, you may only get to If it’s low, remove the left body panel side cover and about half way up the vertical frame section behind the motor, you will find a plug that has 3 white with a blue?

Robot schematics, books, and circuits for mini-sumo, line-following, BEAM, and electronic projects. DIY instructions on making robots at home. Basic help and tips on how to build robotic sensors. Homemade autonomous bots for a hobby! By David Cook.

The following instructions are for creating a MegaSquirt to Relay Board cable. It is for those who are creating their own harness. With both boxes mounted, measure the distance between them from DB connector to DB connector – this will be the length that you will cut the individual wires. If you are not using a Relay Board, allow enough length in each of your wires to reach the target component.

It is often better to be too long and trim afterwards, than to be too short and have to splice additional lengths on. For a Relay Board cable, you can move both heat shrink pieces to the center of the wire length, and then twisting the center of the wire with a few twists to hold the heat shrink in place, so that it does not fall off the wire or run down while soldering the connection. For a pigtail, you can slip the heat shrink tubing on later. Orient them so that both are facing the same way, with pins 1 – 19 closest to you.

You will definitely want something to hold the connector, since as you attach more wires it wants to move around more, while at the same time you have less room to solder. Having it held stable helps a lot. Run one wire from pin 7 to pin 7 there are numbers on the plastic surrounding the connector’s pins and solder both ends. Repeat with pins 8, 9, 10, 11 and 19 this one is important – it is the return wire for the coolant temperature sensor, air temperature sensor, and TPS.


While these are cheap and high temperature tolerant, they are susceptible to voltage spikes caused by the inductive nature of the load ignition coil. Ones with higher voltage ratings will be less likely to be damaged by spikes. Further protection methods are outlined lower down this page and in the comments.

Back to the GEO Home Page Musical Instrument Tube Amp Building, Maintaining and Modifying FAQ. Much of this material applies to building or re-building hi-fi equipment, as well but it was originally intended for musical instrument crazies.

Otago Daily Times Filed Under: ATV Utility Vehicle Hunting Buggy – The rear electric atv motor is visible mounted on the rear axle of the Barefoot Motors electric ATV prototype Electric all-terrain vehicles may not impress the dune-and trail-riding crowd that rides for recreation, but a few small companies expect organic farmers and vineyard growers will pay a premium to gather cattle and spray vines without the carbon footprint of a gas vehicle.

While automakers are toiling to produce electric cars that will fit the demands of American drivers, Ashland-based Barefoot Motors is on the verge of turning out heavy-duty electric ATVs that can go 50 miles on a charge costing about 90 cents. She’d like to haul her spraying equipment without fogging the vines with exhaust fumes, and the electric ATV motors could get free power from the vineyard’s solar panels. It’s even more cost-efficient for farms producing their own power from solar panels or manure digesters, and as gas prices go up.

Barefoot is not the first electric ATV coming to market. Bad Boy Buggies in Natchez, Mississippi, has vehicles intended for hunters. The high price of Barefoot’s model comes from the lithium iron phosphate batteries, the same technology General Motors is putting in the Chevrolet Volt electric car. Some have gone to underground mining operations and electric utilities where the lack of exhaust and short turning radius are a plus.

E-Force – with Electric ATV Motors

By the way, if you want to lighten your laptop load, take a look at the MoGo Mouse. The USB standard specifies that a device may not use more than mA until it has negotiated the right to use mA, but apparently no USB ports enforce that requirement. This makes the USB port a convenient source of power for devices such as this charger.

The Patterson PR was a “Los Angeles-built,” superheterodyne communication receiver that was produced early enough to have many unique or, at least, unusual design features.

August 29, So… you just want to light up an LED. What resistor should you use? Maybe you know the answer, or maybe everyone already assumes that you should know how to get to the answer. What kind of LED are you using? Part of a larger circuit? Playing with LEDs is supposed to be fun, and figuring out the answers to these questions is actually part of the fun.

But how do you know what numbers to plug into that formula to get out the right resistor value? To get the V in our formula, we need to know two things: Lets start with a concrete example. Standard red, orange, yellow and yellow-green LEDs have a Vf of about 1. So, the voltage drop from our yellow LED will be about 1.


My toolbox has an LED tester and magnifier light, so why not add a convenient 5V regulator cap to the collection? There are nicer ones on the market that have surface mount components, but half the fun of an electronics hobby is creating something basic in your own style. This double-decker board with flashing LED power indicator allowed me to experiment with flush battery snaps and board interconnects. Mercury Battery Replacement Regulator Several decades ago, mercuric oxide button cells were common consumer power sources.

Mercury was phased out due to environmental concerns, leaving behind vintage photographic equipment and watches that were incompatible with alkaline’s wide voltage change or silver-oxide’s slightly higher nominal voltage.

For example, you can insert a voltmeter into the LED circuit so that you can measure voltage. In this case, the voltage is measured across the battery. It should read in the vicinity of V. (9 V batteries rarely provide a full 9 V.).

Stage and show lighting Lighting is important in theatre and shows. Lighting allows us to see the performers. Lighting provides a tool for setting moods and tones of scenes on stage. Different type of performanced have different lighting needs. Here are some typical lighting situations: Dance – Back lighting Theatre plays – a somwhow realistic looking combination of different lights Straight Theatre – Light through a window Stage lighting is achieved by the use of a large number of powerful stage lights, or lanterns or luminaires.

There are a great variety of these, for different applications, or of different make or vintage. So there are many different types of lighting instruments used in any theatre. Each type of instrument plays an important role in the overall lighting scheme. The most common light types used in theatres are plane convex lights, freshnels, profiles, which are the generic classes of spotlights. In addition to this floods are used for various applications.

BU-209: How does a Supercapacitor Work?

However, very high voltages often have surprising behavior, aside from effects on the operator perhaps fatal ; high voltages which actually reach a meter’s internal circuitry may internal damage parts, perhaps destroying the meter or permanently ruining its performance. Resolution[ edit ] Resolution and accuracy[ edit ] The resolution of a multimeter is the smallest part of the scale which can be shown, which is scale dependent.

On some digital multimeters it can be configured, with higher resolution measurements taking longer to complete.

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Page 53 This information has been gathered from a number of sites and recognition is given to the original authors. It is very interesting reading and most informative and has been corrected and improved slightly during the transfer. The only item that needs discussing is the measurement of current across TP2 in the lower circuit. Read the discussion below.

Otherwise the article s are great. Goldwasser How do I use a visible laser diode? The quick answer is to be very careful – for two reasons: I am assuming a typical 5 mW visible laser diode You can easily destroy the typical laser diode through instantaneous over-current, static discharge, probing them with a VOM, or just looking at them the wrong way. Anytime you are working with laser light you need to be careful with respect to the exposure of the beam to your eyes.

This is particularly true if you collimate the beam as it will result in possible instantaneous retinal damage. Many laser diodes are packaged in a housing that contains an optical sensing photo diode. This provides a feedback from the laser diode to prevent it from being over-driven. The diagrams below show how the laser and photo diode are connected.

Why Voltmeter Connected in Parallel & How to Measure Voltage (In Hindi )

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