Burns Woolly Mammoths Remains: By Sue Bishop Since Ted Holden has repeatedly insisted that the mammoth whose remains were found in Siberia in was preserved by some great catastrophe as described in Velikovsky’s books, I decided to research the topic. I found several books on the subject, including the original book written by one of the scientists who actually examined, preserved and transported the mammoth remains from Siberia. Preservation of the mammoth remains was somewhat different than has been imagined by the uninformed. The mammoths were ‘mummified’, a process that is quite easily done in a cold environment. Guthrie compares it to the process that packaged meat undergoes in a freezer. Some have objected to this usage on the basis that preservation by freezing is unlike ‘real’ mummification of an embalmed or dried corpse. However, frozen carcasses, like Dima and Blue Babe, two well preserved carcasses described in his book, Dima is a baby mammoth, Blue Babe is a bison are indeed desiccated and fully deserve to be called mummies.
Measurement of N, the number of 14 C atoms currently in the sample, allows the calculation of t, the age of the sample, using the equation above. The above calculations make several assumptions, such as that the level of 14 C in the atmosphere has remained constant over time. The calculations involve several steps and include an intermediate value called the “radiocarbon age”, which is the age in “radiocarbon years” of the sample: Radiocarbon ages are still calculated using this half-life, and are known as “Conventional Radiocarbon Age”.
Since the calibration curve IntCal also reports past atmospheric 14 C concentration using this conventional age, any conventional ages calibrated against the IntCal curve will produce a correct calibrated age.
Radiocarbon dating is a method that provides objective age estimates for carbon-based materials that originated from living organisms. An age could be estimated by measuring the amount of carbon present in the sample and comparing this against an internationally used reference standard.
I linked to your article and to your YouTube video in the article above. Hopefully this will give both of them a lot more exposure. Michael Lyn Leahz I noticed that… thank you so much Michael and many, many blessings to you! I do appreciate all you do for everyone by the wonderful, and outstanding time and quality you put in to all of your writings. I was unaware of the stones. Lyn Leahz Thank you! Kim Either these are fakes or man actually lived among the dinosaurs.
Every culture has a legend of a large, fierce, flying reptile that breathes fire. These creatures known as mythical dragons were none other than dinosaurs. They had to be. The coincidence is too strong. As for the depictions of modern aircraft, who knows. That is a question among questions.
Lake Mungo remains
How Does Carbon Dating Work Carbon is a weakly radioactive isotope of Carbon; also known as radiocarbon, it is an isotopic chronometer. C dating is only applicable to organic and some inorganic materials not applicable to metals. Gas proportional counting, liquid scintillation counting and accelerator mass spectrometry are the three principal radiocarbon dating methods. What is Radiocarbon Dating?
Carbon dating can only accurately date organic material from the past 50, years, or so. Carbon (14C) is continually made in the upper atmosphere as cosmic rays and other high energy particles bombard Nitrogen
Gerald Schroeder How old is the world? Ancient commentators propose that the world may be simultaneously young and old. One of the most obvious perceived contradictions between Torah and science is the age of the universe. Is it billions of years old, like scientific data, or is it thousands of years, like Biblical data? When we add up the generations of the Bible, we come to plus years. Whereas, data from the Hubble telescope or from the land based telescopes in Hawaii, indicate the age at about 15 billion years.
Let me clarify right at the start. The world may be only some years old. God could have put the fossils in the ground and juggled the light arriving from distant galaxies to make the world appear to be billions of years old. There is absolutely no way to disprove this claim. God being infinite could have made the world that way. The world may be young and old simultaneously. In the following I consider this latter option. In trying to resolve this apparent conflict, it’s interesting to look historically at trends in knowledge, because absolute proofs are not forthcoming.
Jean Hardouin then suggested that many ancient historical documents were much younger than commonly believed to be. In he published a version of Pliny the Elder ‘s Natural History in which he claimed that most Greek and Roman texts had been forged by Benedictine monks. When later questioned on these results, Hardouin stated that he would reveal the monks’ reasons in a letter to be revealed only after his death.
The executors of his estate were unable to find such a document among his posthumous papers. Especially the history of their birth and of their early years is furnished with phantastic traits; the amazing similarity, nay literal identity, of those tales, even if they refer to different, completely independent peoples, sometimes geographically far removed from one another, is well known and has struck many an investigator. In , together with a few colleagues from the mathematics department of Moscow State University , he published several articles on “new mathematical methods in history” in peer-reviewed journals.
This is the major flaw in radiometric dating, e.g. that you must have a verifiable amount of the substance being measured in the beginning when the rocks were formed. Secondly, you must have an observable time span so we can be certain nothing has affected the amount of the radioactive element being measured, e.g. nothing has leeched into or out of the rock over time, etc.
View images by clicking on link or reduced image: Each image opens into a new window. These primitive, medium sized apes lived in rain forests between 18 and 22 million years ago. This species and others such as Dryopithecus existed before the hominid line diverged on the path to humans. This lineage ancestral gibbons is believed to have diverged from the great ape and human lineages between 17 and 25 Mya Avers, Oreopithecus ‘s hand closely matches the pattern of early hominids, with a grasping capability including firm pad-to-pad precision gripping that apes are unable to perform presumably as a response to similar functional demands to hominids Moya-Sola et al,
Scientific Papers and Articles
Our reports contain official radiocarbon dating certificates for each sample together with calibration curves showing how each conventional radiocarbon age for samples has been calibrated with the calendar year curve. Application Suitable for dating sediments up to c. Non-marine as well as marine and terrestrial sediments can be dated using this method. Each sample is prepared in the same way as for a micropalaeontological analysis.
Suitable specimens are selected by picking through the residue. Please contact us to discuss your requirements.
Oct 11, · Best Answer: First, carbon 14 is produced constantly but in tiny tiny amounts, in the upper atmosphere, but of all the carbon around only a trace amount is carbon 14, far less then!%. Its half life is about : Resolved.
Indeed, in the context of what the virtue of chastity is all about, neither of them make sense. Those who have virtue will spontaneously live in accord with the commandments. They are not perceived as impositions that deny us pleasure, but as safeguards against harming ourselves and others. Such was the case with Christ. Rather, chastity is the virtue that helps us see things truly and objectively—things as they really are—within the realm of sexuality.
This clarity of vision is necessary for true human freedom and human flourishing. It is chastity that gives us the freedom to order our sexual appetites and therefore make decisions that correspond with reality. Christ lived as a chaste man, not because he followed every dot and tittle of the law which of course he did , but rather, because he lived in accordance with the truth of what it means to be a man, made in the image and likeness of God.
Like Christ, a man who truly knows who he is will naturally lead a life of chastity. Rather, it is immoral because it is irrational for human beings to live in such a way, based on the sort of creature that human beings are. Put more simply, the reason it is immoral for me to live out a life according to my subjective desires and inclinations is precisely because I am not, in fact, a gay man.
Nor is any man. I have written often before of the reasons I eschew the word gay to describe myself, and why I think it is a mistake for anyone to claim that label.
Carbon is a weakly radioactive isotope of Carbon; also known as radiocarbon, it is an isotopic chronometer. C dating is only applicable to organic and some inorganic materials not applicable to metals. Gas proportional counting, liquid scintillation counting, and accelerator mass spectrometry are the three principal radiocarbon dating methods. Radiocarbon measurements are reported as Conventional Radiocarbon Age.
What is Radiocarbon Dating?
How is carbon dating done? Asked by: William Baker Answer Carbon 14 (C14) is an isotope of carbon with 8 neutrons instead of the more common 6 neutrons. It is unstable, and scientists know that it radioactively decays by electron emission to Nitrogen 14, with a half life of years. This means that given a statistically large sample of.
Shop Now Scientists use a technique called radiometric dating to estimate the ages of rocks, fossils, and the earth. Many people have been led to believe that radiometric dating methods have proved the earth to be billions of years old. With our focus on one particular form of radiometric dating—carbon dating—we will see that carbon dating strongly supports a young earth. Note that, contrary to a popular misconception, carbon dating is not used to date rocks at millions of years old.
Basics Before we get into the details of how radiometric dating methods are used, we need to review some preliminary concepts from chemistry. Recall that atoms are the basic building blocks of matter.
Doesn’t Carbon-14 Dating Disprove the Bible?
It took months and sometimes years to obtain carbon dating results. Beta Analytic was founded by Murry Tamers, Ph. Yale University , D. They have both been instrumental in the development of radiocarbon dating methodology since and have published more than papers. Tamers was a director for university radiocarbon dating labs for twenty years before he commercialized radiocarbon dating analysis as Beta Analytic chairman and lab director.
Carbon dating is a way of determining the age of certain archeological artifacts of a biological origin up to about 50, years old. It is used in dating things such as bone, cloth, wood and plant fibers that were created in the relatively recent past by human activities.
Here, RSR presents the scientific journals reporting, the kinds of biological material found so far, and the dinosaurs yielding up these exciting discoveries: Dinosaur and Dinosaur-Layer Creatures: As you view the exciting scientific discoveries below in this chronological catalog, please feel free to listen to Real Science Radio co-hosts Fred Williams and Bob Enyart observe their annual tradition of presenting dinosaur soft tissue and other amazing discoveries including short-lived left-handed amino acids , DNA , and Carbon 14 , all in bones and other specimens from dinosaur-layer Mesozoic and even deeper strata.
As for these photos though, North Carolina State University discovered this original biological tissue from a supposedly million-year-old Tyrannosaurus Rex thighbone, with transparent and pliable blood vessels containing red blood cells. See these and other T. In a development, ten leading universities and institutes including Harvard, the University of Manchester, and the University of Pennsylvania published in PLoS One, a peer-reviewed journal, that they had verified that presumed dinosaur material is indeed original biological tissue from a dinosaur!
Creationists refer to dinosaurs as missionary lizards for many reasons including: Interestingly, the renowned evolutionist PZ Myers ridiculed our Real Science Radio program by repeating what had been a widely-discredited secular hope that the “soft-tissue” dinosaur finds were ” biofilm ” contamination from bacteria. But as 60 Minutes shows and Bob Enyart sums it up, “This is dinosaur. As below , and in this peer-reviewed report by researchers including from Lund University in Sweden and Southern Methodist University in Dallas, scientists confirm another biological tissue discovery using sophisticated techniques to rule out modern contamination, bio-film, etc.
Yet according to a report in Science Magazine as it relates to the discoveries of dinosaur tissue, scientists calculate the maximum survival time of collagen not in millions but in thousands of years. Consistent with the expectations of biblical creationists, according to Nat’l Geographic, there’s yet another discovery of soft tissue in a dinosaur , this time, a hadrosaur, with soft blood vessels, connective tissue, and blood cell protein amino acid chains partially sequenced at Harvard University.
This allegedly million-year-old non-fossilized duck-billed dinosaur tissue was discovered by a team led by researchers at North Carolina State University. One would think that these “dinosaur-era” finds would be trumpeted as the scientific discovery of our age.
Risk of Harm This dimension of the assessment considers a person’s potential to cause significant harm to self or others. While this may most frequently be due to suicidal or homicidal thoughts or intentions, in many cases unintentional harm may result from misinterpretations of reality, from inability to adequately care for oneself, or from altered states of consciousness due to use of intoxicating substances in an uncontrolled manner.
For the purposes of evaluation in this parameter, deficits in ability to care for oneself are considered only in the context of their potential to cause harm. Likewise, only behaviors associated with substance use are used to rate risk of harm, not the substance use itself. In addition to direct evidence of potentially dangerous behavior from interview and observation, other factors may be considered in determining the likelihood of such behavior such as; past history of dangerous behaviors, ability to contract for safety, and availability of means.
Carbon, (14 C), or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons. Its presence in organic materials is the basis of the radiocarbon dating method pioneered by Willard Libby and colleagues () to date .
Head Gasket Towards the end of Bee didn’t seem to be pulling so well, and sounded a bit rough backing into the garage. Checking the carbs the rear was OK on the lifting pin but the front didn’t give the usual response. Checking the plugs the front pair looked a bit weak, so richened going for max idle when turning the nut, but the lifting pin still didn’t do much. I’d deliberately left the Bosch 4-point plugs in well over 10k just to see what happened, no mechanical wear, but decided the experiment had gone on long enough so fitted a new set of NGKs.
Running noticeably better, some response from the front lifting-pin, but still not as good as the rear. Did a compression test, and No. Did a compressed air test, and No. So the head will have to come off – again, go away for testing, and if OK I’ll have it converted to unleaded to take the old valves and seats out of the equation.
If not, then a replacement head from somewhere. However, last time when torquing back up some of the studs weren’t rising as I would have expected, and I wondered if some were on the point of failing. I’d tried to remove them using double-nuts – as much to make it easier to clean the block face as anything else, but couldn’t shift the first few I tried, so gave up.
I can’t re-use them yet again, so will have to investigate more drastic ways of removal, which may end-up with some of them snapping off. If that happens, I’ll have to try drilling and retapping, but that could well go wrong, meaning a replacement engine.